u substitutions with definite integrals

By Tutor GuyNo Comments


When a definite integral requires a u substitution to solve, be sure to substitute for the limits of integration as well. This way, you don’t need to substitute back in for the original function. Instead, you evaluate the integral using the new (u) limits. Here’s an example to show how this works.


\displaystyle \int_0^{\pi/4} \sec^2 \theta \tan^2 \theta \; d \theta

This is an obvious candidate for a u substitution. (See other posts on this website for more information on when to use u substitutions.)

Let u= \tan \theta. Then du=\sec^2 \theta \; d \theta.

But don’t stop there! Use your expression for u to determine the new limits as well.

\theta =0 \rightarrow u=0; \; \theta= \dfrac{\pi}{4} \rightarrow u=1

So the new integral becomes

\displaystyle \int_0^{\pi/4} \sec^2 \theta \tan^2 \theta \; d \theta =\int_0^1 u^2 \; du= \left. \dfrac{1}{3}u^3 \right |_0^1=\dfrac{1}{3}-0=\dfrac{1}{3}

You have found the solution to the original integral without needing to put the integral back in terms of \theta.

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